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Name

bitmap, bmtoa, atobm - bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System

Synopsis

bitmap [ -option ... ] [ filename ] [ basename ]

bmtoa [ -chars ... ] [ filename ]

atobm [ -chars cc ] [ -name variable ] [ -xhot number ] [ -yhot number ] [ filename ]

Description

The bitmap program is a rudimentary tool for creating or editing rectangular images made up of 1’s and 0’s. Bitmaps are used in X for defining clipping regions, cursor shapes, icon shapes, and tile and stipple patterns.

The bmtoa and atobm filters convert bitmap files (FILE FORMAT) to and from ASCII strings. They are most commonly used to quickly print out bitmaps and to generate versions for including in text.

Command line options

Bitmap supports the standard X Toolkit command line arguments. The following additional arguments are supported as well.
-size WIDTHxHEIGHT
Specifies size of the grid in squares.
-sw dimension
Specifies the width of squares in pixels.
-sh dimension
Specifies the height of squares in pixels.
-gt dimension
Grid tolerance. If the square dimensions fall below the specified value, grid will be automatically turned off.
-grid, +grid
Turns on or off the grid lines.
-axes, +axes
Turns on or off the major axes.
-dashed, +dashed
Turns on or off dashing for the frame and grid lines.
-stippled, +stippled
Turns on or off stippling of highlighted squares.
-proportional, +proportional
Turns proportional mode on or off. If proportional mode is on, square width is equal to square height. If proportional mode is off, bitmap will use the smaller square dimension, if they were initially different.
-dashes filename
Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for dashing.
-stipple filename
Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for highlighting.
-hl colour
Specifies the colour used for highlighting.
-fr colour
Specifies the colour used for the frame and grid lines.
filename
Specifies the bitmap to be initially loaded into the program. If the file does not exist, bitmap will assume it is a new file.
basename
Specifies the basename to be used in the C code output file. If it is different than the basename in the working file, bitmap will change it when saving the file.

Bmtoa accepts the following option:

-chars cc
This option specifies the pair of characters to use in the string version of the bitmap. The first character is used for 0 bits and the second character is used for 1 bits. The default is to use dashes (-) for 0’s and sharp signs (#) for 1’s.

Atobm accepts the following options:

-chars cc
This option specifies the pair of characters to use when converting string bitmaps into arrays of numbers. The first character represents a 0 bit and the second character represents a 1 bit. The default is to use dashes (-) for 0’s and sharp signs (#) for 1’s.
-name variable
This option specifies the variable name to be used when writing out the bitmap file. The default is to use the basename of the filename command line argument or leave it blank if the standard input is read.
-xhot number
This option specifies the X coordinate of the hotspot. Only positive values are allowed. By default, no hotspot information is included.
-yhot number
This option specifies the Y coordinate of the hotspot. Only positive values are allowed. By default, no hotspot information is included.

Usage

Bitmap displays grid in which each square represents a single bit in the picture being edited. Actual size of the bitmap image, as it would appear normally and inverted, can be obtained by pressing Meta-I key. You are free to move the image popup out of the way to continue editing. Pressing the left mouse button in the popup window or Meta-I again will remove the real size bitmap image.

If the bitmap is to be used for defining a cursor, one of the squares in the images may be designated as the hot spot. This determines where the cursor is actually pointing. For cursors with sharp tips (such as arrows or fingers), this is usually at the end of the tip; for symmetric cursors (such as crosses or bullseyes), this is usually at the center.

Bitmaps are stored as small C code fragments suitable for including in applications. They provide an array of bits as well as symbolic constants giving the width, height, and hot spot (if specified) that may be used in creating cursors, icons, and tiles.

Editing

To edit a bitmap image simply click on one of the buttons with drawing commands (Point, Curve, Line, Rectangle, etc.) and move the pointer into the bitmap grid window. Press one of the buttons on your mouse and the appropriate action will take place. You can either set, clear or invert the grid squares. Setting a grid square corresponds to setting a bit in the bitmap image to 1. Clearing a grid square corresponds to setting a bit in the bitmap image to 0. Inverting a grid square corresponds to changing a bit in the bitmap image from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0, depending what its previous state was. The default behavior of mouse buttons is as specified below.

                 MouseButton1        Set
                 MouseButton2        Invert
                 MouseButton3        Clear
                 MouseButton4        Clear
                 MouseButton5        Clear

This default behavior can be changed by setting the button function resources. An example is provided below.

                 bitmap*button1Function: Set
                 bitmap*button2Function: Clear
                 bitmap*button3Function: Invert
                 etc.

The button function applies to all drawing commands, including copying, moving and pasting, flood filling and setting the hot spot.

Drawing commands

Here is the list of drawing commands accessible through the buttons at the left side of the application’s window. Some commands can be aborted by pressing A inside the bitmap window, allowing the user to select different guiding points where applicable.
Clear
This command clears all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be set to the background colour. Pressing C inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Set
This command sets all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be set to the foreground colour. Pressing S inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Invert
This command inverts all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be inverted appropriately. Pressing I inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Mark
This command is used to mark an area of the grid by dragging out a rectangular shape in the highlighting colour. Once the area is marked, it can be operated on by a number of commands (see Up, Down, Left, Right, Rotate, Flip, Cut, etc.) Only one marked area can be present at any time. If you attempt to mark another area, the old mark will vanish. The same effect can be achieved by pressing Shift-MouseButton1 and dragging out a rectangle in the grid window. Pressing Shift-MouseButton2 will mark the entire grid area.
Unmark
This command will cause the marked area to vanish. The same effect can be achieved by pressing Shift-MouseButton3.
Copy
This command is used to copy an area of the grid from one location to another. If there is no marked grid area displayed, Copy behaves just like Mark described above. Once there is a marked grid area displayed in the highlighting colour, this command has two alternative behaviors. If you click a mouse button inside the marked area, you will be able to drag the rectangle that represents the marked area to the desired location. After you release the mouse button, the area will be copied. If you click outside the marked area, Copy will assume that you wish to mark a different region of the bitmap image, thus it will behave like Mark again.
Move
This command is used to move an area of the grid from one location to another. Its behavior resembles the behavior of Copy command, except that the marked area will be moved instead of copied.
Flip Horizontally
This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to the horizontal axes. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing H inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Up
This command moves the bitmap image one pixel up. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing UpArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Flip Vertically
This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to the vertical axes. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing V inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Left
This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the left. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing LeftArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Fold
This command will fold the bitmap image so that the opposite corners become adjacent. This is useful when creating bitmap images for tiling. Pressing F inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Right
This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the right. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing RightArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Rotate Left
This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the left (counter clockwise.) If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing L inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Down
This command moves the bitmap image one pixel down. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing DownArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Rotate Right
This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the right (clockwise.) If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing R inside the bitmap window has the same effect.
Point
This command will change the grid squares underneath the mouse pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down. If you drag the mouse button continuously, the line may not be continuous, depending on the speed of your system and frequency of mouse motion events.
Curve
This command will change the grid squares underneath the mouse pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down. If you drag the mouse button continuously, it will make sure that the line is continuous. If your system is slow or bitmap receives very few mouse motion events, it might behave quite strangely.
Line
This command will change the grid squares in a line between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the line from the square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to take effect, and the highlighted line will disappear.
Rectangle
This command will change the grid squares in a rectangle between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the rectangle from the square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to take effect, and the highlighted rectangle will disappear.
Filled Rectangle
This command is identical to Rectangle, except at the end the rectangle will be filled rather than outlined.
Circle
This command will change the grid squares in a circle between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the circle from the square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to take effect, and the highlighted circle will disappear.
Filled Circle
This command is identical to Circle, except at the end the circle will be filled rather than outlined.
Flood Fill
This command will flood fill the connected area underneath the mouse pointer when you click on the desired square. Diagonally adjacent squares are not considered to be connected.
Set Hot Spot
This command designates one square in the grid as the hot spot if this bitmap image is to be used for defining a cursor. Pressing a mouse button in the desired square will cause a diamond shape to be displayed.
Clear Hot Spot
This command removes any designated hot spot from the bitmap image.
Undo
This command will undo the last executed command. It has depth one, that is, pressing Undo after Undo will undo itself.

File menu

The File menu commands can be accessed by pressing the File button and selecting the appropriate menu entry, or by pressing Ctrl key with another key. These commands deal with files and global bitmap parameters, such as size, basename, filename etc.
New
This command will clear the editing area and prompt for the name of the new file to be edited. It will not load in the new file.
Load
This command is used to load a new bitmap file into the bitmap editor. If the current image has not been saved, user will be asked whether to save or ignore the changes. The editor can edit only one file at a time. If you need interactive editing, run a number of editors and use cut and paste mechanism as described below.
Insert
This command is used to insert a bitmap file into the image being currently edited. After being prompted for the filename, click inside the grid window and drag the outlined rectangle to the location where you want to insert the new file.
Save
This command will save the bitmap image. It will not prompt for the filename unless it is said to be <none>. If you leave the filename undesignated or -, the output will be piped to stdout.
Save As
This command will save the bitmap image after prompting for a new filename. It should be used if you want to change the filename.
Resize
This command is used to resize the editing area to the new number of pixels. The size should be entered in the WIDTHxHEIGHT format. The information in the image being edited will not be lost unless the new size is smaller that the current image size. The editor was not designed to edit huge files.
Rescale
This command is used to rescale the editing area to the new width and height. The size should be entered in the WIDTHxHEIGHT format. It will not do antialiasing and information will be lost if you rescale to the smaller sizes. Feel free to add you own algorithms for better rescaling.
Filename
This command is used to change the filename without changing the basename nor saving the file. If you specify - for a filename, the output will be piped to stdout.
Basename
This command is used to change the basename, if a different one from the specified filename is desired.
Quit
This command will terminate the bitmap application. If the file was not saved, user will be prompted and asked whether to save the image or not. This command is preferred over killing the process.

Edit menu

The Edit menu commands can be accessed by pressing the Edit button and selecting the appropriate menu entry, or by pressing Meta key with another key. These commands deal with editing facilities such as grid, axes, zooming, cut and paste, etc.
Image
This command will display the image being edited and its inverse in its actual size in a separate window. The window can be moved away to continue with editing. Pressing the left mouse button in the image window will cause it to disappear from the screen.
Grid
This command controls the grid in the editing area. If the grid spacing is below the value specified by gridTolerance resource (8 by default), the grid will be automatically turned off. It can be enforced by explicitly activating this command.
Dashed
This command controls the stipple for drawing the grid lines. The stipple specified by dashes resource can be turned on or off by activating this command.
Axes
This command controls the highlighting of the main axes of the image being edited. The actual lines are not part of the image. They are provided to aid user when constructing symmetrical images, or whenever having the main axes highlighted helps your editing.
Stippled
This command controls the stippling of the highlighted areas of the bitmap image. The stipple specified by stipple resource can be turned on or off by activating this command.
Proportional
This command controls the proportional mode. If the proportional mode is on, width and height of all image squares are forced to be equal, regardless of the proportions of the bitmap window.
Zoom
This command controls the zoom mode. If there is a marked area of the image already displayed, bitmap will automatically zoom into it. Otherwise, user will have to highlight an area to be edited in the zoom mode and bitmap will automatically switch into it. One can use all the editing commands and other utilities in the zoom mode. When you zoom out, undo command will undo the whole zoom session.
Cut
This commands cuts the contents of the highlighted image area into the internal cut and paste buffer.
Copy
This command copies the contents of the highlighted image area into the internal cut and paste buffer.
Paste
This command will check if there are any other bitmap applications with a highlighted image area, or if there is something in the internal cut and paste buffer and copy it to the image. To place the copied image, click in the editing window and drag the outlined image to the position where you want to place i, and then release the button.

Cut and paste

Bitmap supports two cut and paste mechanisms; the internal cut and paste and the global X selection cut and paste. The internal cut and paste is used when executing copy and move drawing commands and also cut and copy commands from the edit menu. The global X selection cut and paste is used whenever there is a highlighted area of a bitmap image displayed anywhere on the screen. To copy a part of image from another bitmap editor simply highlight the desired area by using the Mark command or pressing the shift key and dragging the area with the left mouse button. When the selected area becomes highlighted, any other applications (such as xterm, etc.) that use primary selection will discard their selection values and unhighlight the appropriate information. Now, use the Paste command for the Edit menu or control mouse button to copy the selected part of image into another (or the same) bitmap application. If you attempt to do this without a visible highlighted image area, the bitmap will fall back to the internal cut and paste buffer and paste whatever was there stored at the moment.

Widgets

Below is the widget structure of the bitmap application. Indentation indicates hierarchical structure. The widget class name is given first, followed by the widget instance name. All widgets except the bitmap widget are from the standard Athena widget set.

            Bitmap bitmap
                 TransientShell image
                      Box box
                           Label normalImage
                           Label invertedImage
                 TransientShell input
                      Dialog dialog
                           Command okay
                           Command cancel
                 TransientShell error
                      Dialog dialog
                           Command abort
                           Command retry
                 TransientShell qsave
                      Dialog dialog
                           Command yes
                           Command no
                           Command cancel
                 Paned parent
                      Form formy
                           MenuButton fileButton
                           SimpleMenu fileMenu
                                SmeBSB  new
                                SmeBSB  load
                                SmeBSB  insert
                                SmeBSB  save
                                SmeBSB  saveAs
                                SmeBSB  resize
                                SmeBSB  rescale
                                SmeBSB  filename
                                SmeBSB  basename
                                SmeLine line
                                SmeBSB  quit
                           MenuButton editButton
                           SimpleMenu editMenu
                                SmeBSB  image
                                SmeBSB  grid
                                SmeBSB  dashed
                                SmeBSB  axes
                                SmeBSB  stippled
                                SmeBSB  proportional
                                SmeBSB  zoom
                                SmeLine line
                                SmeBSB  cut
                                SmeBSB  copy
                                SmeBSB  paste
                           Label status
                      Pane pane
                           Bitmap bitmap
                           Form form
                                Command clear
                                Command set
                                Command invert
                                Toggle  mark
                                Command unmark
                                Toggle  copy
                                Toggle  move
                                Command flipHoriz
                                Command up
                                Command flipVert
                                Command left
                                Command fold
                                Command right
                                Command rotateLeft
                                Command down
                                Command rotateRight
                                Toggle  point
                                Toggle  curve
                                Toggle  line
                                Toggle  rectangle
                                Toggle  filledRectangle
                                Toggle  circle
                                Toggle  filledCircle
                                Toggle  floodFill
                                Toggle  setHotSpot
                                Command clearHotSpot
                                Command undo

Colours

If you would like bitmap to be viewable in colour, include the following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the %HOME%/Xdefaults file:

*customization: -color

This will cause bitmap to pick up the colours in the app-defaults color customization file:

app-defaults/Bitmap-color

Bitmap widget

Bitmap widget is a stand-alone widget for editing raster images. It is not designed to edit large images, although it may be used in that purpose as well. It can be freely incorporated with other applications and used as a standard editing tool. The following are the resources provided by the bitmap widget.

       Bitmap Widget

       Header file         Bitmap.h
       Class               bitmapWidgetClass
       Class Name          Bitmap
       Superclass          Bitmap

       All the Simple Widget resources plus ...

       Name            Class           Type            Default Value

       foreground      Foreground      Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
       highlight       Highlight       Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
       framing         Framing         Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
       gridTolerance   GridTolerance   Dimension       8
       size            Size            String          32x32
       dashed          Dashed          Boolean         True
       grid            Grid            Boolean         True
       stippled        Stippled        Boolean         True
       proportional    Proportional    Boolean         True
       axes            Axes            Boolean         False
       squareWidth     SquareWidth     Dimension       16
       squareHeight    SquareHeight    Dimension       16
       margin          Margin          Dimension       16
       xHot            XHot            Position        NotSet (-1)
       yHot            YHot            Position        NotSet (-1)
       button1Function Button1Function DrawingFunction Set
       button2Function Button2Function DrawingFunction Invert
       button3Function Button3Function DrawingFunction Clear
       button4Function Button4Function DrawingFunction Invert
       button5Function Button5Function DrawingFunction Invert
       filename        Filename        String          None ("")
       basename        Basename        String          None ("")

Author

Davor Matic, MIT X Consortium


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