Xming Manual


       Xming - X Server for Microsoft Windows


       Xming [:display-number] [option ...]


       Xming is an X Server running on Microsoft Windows.


       Xming can operate in five different and incompatible modes:

       * one  window:   This is the default option.  The X server appears as a
       single Microsoft Windows window and all X windows  are contained within
       that window.  This mode requires an  external  Windows  window manager.
       Typically this mode would be used for XDMCP login to a  remote  machine
       using its DM (X Display Manager e.g. KDE, Gnome or just XDM) instead of
       a local window manager running on Microsoft Windows.

       * nodecoration  or  [-nodecoration]:  This mode is like one window mode
       except that the X server window does not have  a  titlebar  or  border,
       thus  maximizing the amount of space available for X windows within the
       X server window.  This mode requires an external window manager.

       * fullscreen or [-fullscreen]: This mode is like one window mode except
       that the X server window takes the full screen, covering completely the
       Microsoft Windows desktop.  This mode requires an external window  man-
       ager. Can be used with -depth 8 for old 8-bit colour clients.

       * rootless or [-rootless]:  The X server works on a window covering the
       whole screen but the  root  window is  hidden  from  view.   This  mode
       requires an external window manager.

       * multiwindow or [-multiwindow]: In this mode Xming uses its own  inte-
       grated  window  manager  in order to handle the top-level X windows, in
       such a way that they appear as normal  Microsoft Windows windows.  This
       is the recommended option to use.

       Notes: -multiwindow mode will crash if an external window manager  such
       as openbox or xwinwm is launched since -multiwindow uses its own inter-
       nal window manager; all other modes require an external window  manager
       in  order to move, resize, and perform other operations on the individ-
       ual X windows.  Suitable external  window managers are twm, openbox and
       xwinwm (twm is in Xming tools and clients, with the other two available
       from Cygwin/X).  When using XDMCP a Microsoft Windows window manager is
       not required as the remote Display Manager (DM) performs that task.

       Press Alt-F4 to shutdown Xming.  See the -[no]winkill and -[no]unixkill
       options to change this default.  Also Xming has  Exit selectable on its
       notification area icon menu.


       As it runs Xming writes messages indicating the most relevant events to
       a  log file that by default is Xming.n.log, where n is the display-num-
       ber of the X server.  This file is mainly for debugging purposes.   You
       may  also  just get an  Xming.log file  from  a  total failure early in
       server startup.

Preferences file

       On startup Xming looks for the  file  Xmingrc  in  the  %HOME%  or  the
       install  directory.  Xmingrc allows setting preferences for the follow-

       *  To include items into the menu associated with the Xming icon  which
       is  in  the Microsoft Windows notification area.  This functions in all
       modes that have a notification area icon.

       *  To include items in the menu which is associated with the  Microsoft
       Windows  window that -multiwindow produces for each top-level X Window.
       That can be done both for the generic case and for particular programs.

       *  To change the icon that is associated to the  Microsoft Windows win-
       dow that -multiwindow produces for each top-level X Window.

       *  To change the style that is associated with  the  Microsoft  Windows
       window that -multiwindow produces for each top-level X Window.

       *  To change the taskbar button  properties of  the  Microsoft  Windows
       window that -multiwindow produces for each top-level  X window.

       The format of the Xmingrc file is given in the Xmingrc manual page.


       All normal server options are shown using -help.  It is also prudent to
       look at the output of -help to check the options that are operative  in
       your version of Xming.

       The following  command line switches are  Xming specific,  all of which
       are optional:

               Enables the integration between the X11 clipboard and Microsoft
               Windows clipboard.  The default is disabled.

       -clipupdates num_boxes
               Specify an optional threshold,  above  which  the  boxes  in  a
               shadow  update  operation will be collected into a GDI clipping
               region.  The clipping region is then used to do  a  single  bit
               block  transfer  that is constrained to the updated area by the
               clipping region.  There is some overhead involved in  creating,
               installing,  destroying, and removing the clipping region, thus
               there may not be much benefit for a small number of boxes (less
               than  10).   Diminished  effect  on  current  Windows  versions
               because they already group GDI operations together in a  batch,
               which has a similar effect.

	       X windows with per-pixel alpha are composited into the  Windows 
               desktop  (i.e.  a  Windows  window  can  be  seen  through  any 
               transparency in an X window placed over it).
               This option has no effect on Windows 8 and 8.1.
               This option has no effect if -compositewm is disabled.
               The default is disabled.

               Use Composite extension redirection to maintain a  bitmap image
               of each  top-level  X window,  so  window  contents  which  are
               occluded show correctly in Taskbar and Task Switcher  previews.
               The default is: ≥ enabled and previously disabled.

       -depth depth
               Specify the colour depth,  in bits per pixel,  to use when run-
               ning in -fullscreen with the DirectDraw4 engine. This parameter
               is ignored if -fullscreen is not specified.

       -[no]emulate3buttons timeout
               Emulate  a  three  button  mouse;  pressing both buttons within
               timeout milliseconds causes an emulated  middle  button  press.
               The  default  timeout  is 50 milliseconds.  Note that most mice
               with scroll wheel have middle button functionality, usually you
               will need this option only if you have a two button mouse with-
               out scroll wheel.  Default is to enable this option  if Windows
               reports a two button mouse, disabled otherwise.

       -engine engine_type_id
               This option, which is intended for Xming developers,  overrides
               the server's automatically supported engine type.  This parame-
               ter will be ignored if the specified engine type  is  not  sup-
               ported  on  the  current system.  The supported engine type ids
               are 1 - Shadow GDI and 4 - Shadow DirectDraw Non-Locking.

       -from local-address
	       Specify the local address the server binds.
	       Changes the default from for IPv4 in all Xming modes.
	       Note: this used to be an XDMCP mode only option.

       -fullscreen [-depth depth] [-refresh rate_in_Hz]
               Run the server in -fullscreen mode, as opposed to  the  default
               windowed mode.
               Currently -fullscreen may only be applied to one X screen.

       -help   Write help text to the log file and a popup notepad window.

                In -multiwindow mode, append  @hostname  to the Windows title,
                for  X applications  running on  remote hosts, when their host
                name is available. The default is enabled.

       -icon Icon_File
	        Override the window icon for the root window from default.
	        Icon_File allows the three formats documented in Xmingrc.

               Ignore keyboard and mouse input.  This is usually only used for
               testing and debugging purposes.

               Enable [disable] a low-level keyboard hook for catching special
               key combinations like Alt+Tab and passing them to the X  Server
               instead of letting Microsoft Windows handle them.

               Hide  the Microsoft Windows mouse cursor when the mouse is over
               any Xming window (regardless of whether that window  is  active
               or inactive).  This prevents the Microsoft Windows mouse cursor
               from being placed over the X cursor.

       -logfile File_Name
               Change the log file from the default, Xming.n.log, to  the  one
               indicated by File_Name.

       -logverbose level
               Control  the  degree  of verbosity of the log messages with the
               integer parameter level.  For level=0  only  fatal  errors  are
               reported, for level=1 simple information about configuration is
               also given, for level=2 (default)  a detailed  log  information
               (including trace  and debug output) is produced.  Bigger values
               will yield a still more detailed debug output.   Not many mess-
               ages respect this setting and the default value is 2.

       -[no]multimonitors or -[no]multiplemonitors
               Create a  screen 0  that  covers  all  monitors   [the  primary
               monitor] on a system with multiple monitors. Fake xinerama data
               is created describing the individual monitors, (This is similar
               to the  'merged framebuffer' or 'pseudo-xinerama' mode provided
               by some drivers for the X.Org X server).
               This option  is  currently  enabled by default in  -multiwindow

               Start the integrated Microsoft  Windows-based  window  manager,
               which  launches  each  top-level  X Window in its own Microsoft
               Windows window.  Not to be  used  together  with  -rootless  or

               Do not give the Xming window a Microsoft Windows window border,
               titlebar,  etc.   This  parameter only applies to windowed mode
               screens, i.e., this parameter is ignored when  the  -fullscreen
               parameter is specified.

               Default is X11 PRIMARY selection enabled.  When set -noprimary:
               only map the X11 CLIPBOARD selection (the cut/copied text), but
               not  the  PRIMARY  selection  (the  highlighted text),  to  the
               Windows clipboard. Useable when -clipboard is enabled.

       -refresh rate_in_Hz
               Specify  an  optional  refresh  rate  to  use  when  running in
               -fullscreen  with  the DirectDraw4 engine.  This  parameter  is
               ignored if -fullscreen is not specified.

       -resize [=none|scrollbars|randr]
               Select the resize mode of an X screen.
               The default is none if -fullscreen is used, randr otherwise.

               The screen is not resizable.

               In windowed mode, if the window has decorations,  a fixed frame
               is used.

               Alternative name is -noresize.

               The  screen  window  is resizeable,   but  the  screen  is  not

               In windowed mode,   if the window  has decorations,  a resizing
               frame is used.  Scrollbars are drawn when needed  to  allow the
               entire X screen to viewed by adjusting them.  This also permits
               screens bigger than the Windows virtual desktop to be used.

               This parameter is ignored in -multiwindow or -rootless modes.

               Alternative name is -scrollbars.

               The screen is resizable and the screen window is resizeable.

               In windowed mode,   if the window  has decorations,  a resizing
               frame is used. Resizing the Windows window will  use  the RANDR
               extension  to  change  the  size  of  the  X screen.  Likewise,
               changing the size of  the  X screen using  the  RANDR extension
               will cause  the size  of the  Windows window  containing the  X
               screen to be changed.

               In  -multiwindow or -rootless modes,  if the X screen is of the
               same dimensions  as a  Windows monitor  or the virtual desktop,
               the  X server will respond to  the WM_DISPLAYCHANGED sent  when
               those dimensions change by resizing the X screen.  Changing the
               size  of  the  X  screen  using  the  RANDR  extension  is  not

               The maximum dimensions of the screen are the dimensions  of the
               Windows virtual desktop. 

               On its own -resize is equivalent to -resize=randr.

               Run  the server in -rootless mode.  Not to be used with -multi-
               window or with -fullscreen.

       -screen scr_num [W H [X Y] | [[WxH[+X+Y]][@m]] ]
               This parameter can be used to specify the scr_num, width W,
               height H and position X Y of one or several Xming screens; each
               screen will open in its own  window.   When using many screens,
               do not duplicate screen numbers (scr_num). Xming default behav-
               iour is to create a single screen that is roughly  the size  of
               the current Microsoft Windows display area.
               Screen specific  parameters  can be  applied  as  a  default to
               all  screens by placing those screen specific parameters before
               any -screen parameter.  Screen specific parameters placed after
               the  first -screen parameter will apply only to the immediately
               preceding -screen parameter.  Additionally a monitor number (m)
               can be  specified to start the server on,  at which point,  all
               coordinates become relative to that monitor.
               Note: screen numbers (which count from zero) must be unique and
               contiguous. Physical monitor numbers count from 1.

               Alternative name for -resize=scrollbars.

               Disable  the  usage of the Windows cursor and use the X11 soft-
               ware cursor instead.
               This option is ignored if -compositewm is also enabled.

               Do not create a notification area icon.   Default is to  create
               one icon per screen. You can globally disable notification area
               icons with  -notrayicon,  then enable them for specific screens
               with -trayicon for those screens.

               Enable  or  disable the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination as a
               signal to exit the X server.  The Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combi-
               nation is disabled by default.

               Write version and help text to the log file and a popup notepad

               Enable [disable]  the  GLX extension to use the  native Windows
	       WGL interface for hardware accelerated OpenGL (AIGLX).  This is
               disabled by default: -nowgl.

               Enable or disable the Alt-F4 key combination  as  a  signal  to
               exit  the  X  Server.  The Alt-F4 key combination is enabled by

       -xkblayout layout
       -xkbmodel model
       -xkboptions option
       -xkbrules rule
       -xkbvariant variant
               These xkb options configure the  xkeyboard extension to load  a
               particular keyboard map as the  X server starts.  The behaviour
               is similar to the  setxkbmap  program. The keyboard layout data
               is located at xkb.   Additional information can be found in the
               README files there and in the setxkbmap manual page.

               For  example,  in  order to load a  German  layout for a  pc105
               keyboard use the options:
                -xkblayout de -xkbmodel pc105

               Alternatively, you can use the setxkbmap program after Xming is
               running or even the xmodmap program for loading  the  old-style
               keyboard maps.

               The default is to select a keyboard configuration matching your
               current layout as reported by Windows, if known, or the default
               X server configuration if no matching keyboard configuration is


       This list is  by  no  means  complete,  but  contributors to the  Xming
       project include (in alphabetical order by last name):
       Stuart  Adamson,  Michael Bax, Jehan Bing, Lev Bishop, Dr. Peter Busch,
       Biju G C, Robert Collins, Nick Crabtree,  Early  Ehlinger,  Christopher
       Faylor,   John  Fortin,  Brian  Genisio,  Fabrizio  Gennari,  Alexander
       Gottwald, Ralf Habacker, Colin Harrison, Matthieu  Herrb,  Alan  Houri-
       hane,  Pierre A Humblet,  Harold L Hunt II,  Dakshinamurthy Karra,  Joe
       Krahn,  Paul Loewenstein,  Kensuke Matsuzaki, Takuma Murakami, Earle F.
       Philhower III, Benjamin Riefenstahl, Yaakov Selkowitz,  Suhaib Siddiqi,
       Jack Tanner, John Turney and Nicholas Wourms.

Table of contents

  1. Name
  2. Synopsis
  3. Description
  4. Modes
  5. Log
  6. Preferences file
  7. Options
  8. Authors
Creative Commons License
The [WWW]Xming website, documentation and images are licensed under a
[WWW]Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries.
Copyright © 2005-2024 Colin Harrison All Rights Reserved